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UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs
June 8-10, 1998

Public Letter to Kofi Annan
June 1, 1998
Mr. Kofi Annan
Secretary General
United Nations
New York, New York
United States
Dear Secretary General,
On the occasion of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in New York on June 8-10, 1998, we seek your leadership in stimulating a frank and honest evaluation of global drug control efforts.
We are all deeply concerned about the threat that drugs pose to our children, our fellow citizens and our societies. There is no choice but to work together, both within our countries and across borders, to reduce the harms associated with drugs. The United Nations has a legitimate and important role to play in this regard -- but only if it is willing to ask and address tough questions about the success or failure of its efforts.
We believe that the global war on drugs is now causing more harm than drug abuse itself.
Every decade the United Nations adopts new international conventions, focused largely on criminalization and punishment, that restrict the ability of individual nations to devise effective solutions to local drug problems. Every year governments enact more punitive and costly drug control measures. Every day politicians endorse harsher new drug war strategies.
What is the result? U.N. agencies estimate the annual revenue generated by the illegal drug industry at $400 billion, or the equivalent of roughly eight per cent of total international trade. This industry has empowered organized criminals, corrupted governments at all levels, eroded internal security, stimulated violence, and distorted both economic markets and moral values. These are the consequences not of drug use per se, but of decades of failed and futile drug war policies.
In many parts of the world, drug war politics impede public health efforts to stem the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other infectious diseases. Human rights are violated, environmental assaults perpetrated and prisons inundated with hundreds of thousands of drug law violators. Scarce resources better expended on health, education and economic development are squandered on ever more expensive interdiction efforts. Realistic proposals to reduce drug-related crime, disease and death are abandoned in favor of rhetorical proposals to create drug-free societies.
Persisting in our current policies will only result in more drug abuse, more empowerment of drug markets and criminals, and more disease and suffering. Too often those who call for open debate, rigorous analysis of current policies, and serious consideration of alternatives are accused of "surrendering." But the true surrender is when fear and inertia combine to shut off debate, suppress critical analysis, and dismiss all alternatives to current policies. Mr. Secretary General, we appeal to you to initiate a truly open and honest dialogue regarding the future of global drug control policies - one in which fear, prejudice and punitive prohibitions yield to common sense, science, public health and human rights.
Graciela Fernandez Meijide
Member of Congress
Irma Fidela Parentella
Member of Congress
Gustavo Hurtado
Coordinación Ejecutiva del Programa de Drogadependencia de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires
Carlos Juan Moneta
Permanent Secretary of the Latin American Economic System (SELA)
Adolfo Perez Esquivel
Nobel Laureate (Peace)
Graciela TouzU
President, Intercambios
Dick Adams
House of Representatives, National Parliament
Lyn Allison
Senator, National Parliament
Peter Baume
Former Cabinet Minister; Chancellor, Australian National University
Kevin Berry
Olympic Gold Medallist
Ald. Pru Bonham
Deputy Lord Mayor, Hobart
Ted Bramble
Lawyer, Civil Libertarian
Peter Brooks
Dean, Health Sciences, University of Queensland
John Brumby
Leader of the Opposition, Victoria
Ita Buttrose
Journalist, author
John Cain
Former Premier, Victoria
Dr. Greg B. Chesher
Assoc. Prof. Macdonald J. Christie
Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney
Peter Cleeland
Former Politician
Barney Cooney
Senator from Victoria
Dr. Nick Crofts
Public researcher
Paul Deany
Executive Officer, Asian Harm Reduction Network
Mary Delahunty
Ivor Deverson
Lord Mayor, Melbourne
Bob Douglas
Professor of Epidemiology, Australian National University
Alex Dr. Wodak
Phillip Dunn QC
Paul Ellercamp
Peter Fritz
Founder and Managing Director, TCG Group of Companies
Dr. Peter Graham
General Practitioner
Randolph Griffiths
Former Sydney City Councillor
Sir Rubert Hamer
Former Premier, Victoria
Susan Irvine
Senior Lecturer, Public Health
Harry Jenkins
House of Representatives, National Parliament
Michael Kirby, AC CMG
President, International Commission of Jurists
Joan Kirner
Former Premier, Victoria
John Konrads
Olympic Gold Medallist
Professor Jara Krivanek
Technical University of Ostrava Czech Republic
Richard Larkins
Chairman, National Health and Medical Research Council
Steve Leeder
Dean, Medical Faculty, Sydney University
Helen Lochhead
Frank Merlino
Mayor, City of Whittlesea
David Penington
Former Vice Chancellor, Melbourne University
Ron Penny
Professor of Immunology, University of New South Wales
Bronwyn Pike
Executive Officer, Evatt Centre
Phil Puna
Dr. Adrian Reynolds
Robert Richter QC
Leo Schofield
Director, Sydney Festival
Richard Smallwood
Former President, Royal Australasian College of Physicians
Dr. Nadia Solowij
National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW
John Spatchurst
Principal, Spatchurst Design Associates
Bill Stronach
Australian Drug Foundation
Kelvin Templeton
Sportsman and Sports Administrator
Charles Watson
Dean Health Sciences Curtin University
David White
Former Politician
Michael Willesee
TV Broadcaster
Charles Williams
Dean of Law, Monash University
Neville Wran
Former Premier, New South Wales
Yves Cartuyvels
Professor of Penal Law, University of Saint-Louis, Brussels
Stanley Crossick
Chairman, European Policy Centre
Vincent Decroly
Member of Parliament, Brussels
Christine Guillain
Attorney, Researcher, School of the Criminological Sciences, Free University of Brussels
Dan Kaminski
School of Criminology, Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve
Philippe Mary
Professor of Criminology, Vice-President, School of Crimininological Sciences, Free University of Brussels
Patrick Moriau
University of Brussels Member of Parliament, Mayor of Chapelle-lez-Herlaimont
Ilya Prigogyne
Emeritus professor physical chemistry, Free University of Brussels; Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1977)
Olivier Ralet
Former head, PEDDRO drug prevention project, UNESCO/European Union
Micheline Roelandt
Sonja Snacken
Ph.D., Professor of Criminology and Sociology of Law, Free University of Brussels
Isabelle Stengers
Philosopher, Free University of Brussels; Winner "Grand Prix de Philosophie de L'Académie Française
Lode Van Outrive
Emeritus Professor of Criminology, Leuven University; Former Member of the European Parliament
Antonio Aranibar Quiroga
Former Foreign Minister
Edgar Camacho Omiste
Former Ambassador to the OAS
Roger Cortez-Hurtado
Former Member of Congress
Juan del Granado
Member of Congress
Alfonso Ferrufino Valderrama
Former Vice-President of the Bolivian House of Representatives
Horst Grebe Lopez
Former Cabinet Minister
Lidya Gueiler Tejada
Former President of Bolivia
Roberto Moscoso Valderrama
Member of Congress
Ricardo Paz Ballivian
Former Member of Congress
Carlos Julio Quiroga Blanco
Member of Congress
Guillermo Richter A.
Former Senator
Gonzalo Ruiz
Member of Congress
Manuel Suarez Avila
Member of Congress
Felix Vasquez Mamani
Member of Congress
Ana Magnólia Bezerrá Mendés
Assistant Professor, University of Brasilia
Pedro Casaldaliga
Catholic Bishop of São Felix do Araquaia
Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva
Presidential Candidate, Brazil; Honorary President of the Workers Party
Fabio Mesquita
Researcher, University of São Paulo, Brasil; Executive Director of the Latin American Harm Reduction Network
Glenn A. Gilmour
Lawyer, Ottawa
James A. Wakeford
AIDS Activist, Toronto
Frank Addario
Criminal Lawyer
Chris Axworthy
Member of Parliament, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Marie-Andrée Bertrand
Professor Emeritus of Criminology, University of Montreal; President,
International Antiprohibitionist League, Montreal, Quebec
Barry L. Beyerstein, PhD
Brain Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.
Neil Boyd
Professor, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver
J.A. Browne
Parent, Burlington, Ontario
C. Michael Bryan
Formerly Special Assistant, Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Mecial Use of Drugs (Le Dain Commission); Senior Policy Analyst (Narcotic Control Policy), Health Protection Branch, Health Canada
Paul Burstein
Criminal Lawyer
Sharon Carstairs
Senator, former Chair, Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Sente of Canada
John W. Conroy
Barrister & Solicitor, Mission , B.C.
Paul Copeland
Lawyer; Columnist on Drug Law, Ontario Criminal Lawyers' Association Newsletter, Toronto
Laura Cowan, RN
Executive Director of Street Health, Toronto, Ontario
Libby Davies
Member of Parliament, Vancouver-East
Jonathan Dawe
Barrister, Toronto, Ontario
Denise De Pape
Bev Desjarlais
Members of Parliament, Manitoba
Marion Dewar
HAIA Oxfam Canada, Ottawa
Jari Dvorek
Medical Marijuana Activist, Toronto
Richard Elliott
President, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Toronto
Patricia G. Erickson, PhD
Senior Scientist, Addiction Research Foundation, Division of the Addiction and Mental Health Services Corporation, Professor of Sociology, University of Toronto
Michael Farrance
Addictions Coordinator, City of Toronto Hostels Division, Toronto
Yvon Godin
Member of Parliament, Bathhurst, NB
Irene Goldstone
B.C. Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver
Dr. Richard Gould
Community Medicine Specialist, Toronto
Edward L. Greenspan, QC
Senior Partner, Greenspan, Nenein & White, Toronto
Catherine Hankins
Public Health Epidemiologist, Chair of the Canadian Task Force on HIV and Injection Drug Use, Montreal
David Harvey
Oakville, Ontario
Shaun Hopkins
Manager, The Works
Andrew J. Rapoch
Former President, National Organization for the Reform of the Marijuana Laws (NORML), Ottawa, Ontario
Jane Jacobs
Ralf Jorgens
Executive Director, Canadian HIV/AIDS, Legal Network, Montreal
J. Robertt. Kellerman
Law Union of Ontario, Steering Committee
Perry Kendall
Former president, Addiction Research Foundation, Victoria
Rick Laliberte
Member of Parliament, Churchill River, Beauval, Saskatchewan
Pierre Landreville
Professer of Criminology, University of Montreal
Wendy Lill
Member of Parliament, Dartmouth
Dennis Long
President, Ontario Federation of Community Addictions and Mental Health Programs; Executive Director, Breakaway Substance Abuse Treatment Centre, Toronto, Ontario
Paul MacPhee
Co-Chair AIDS Action Now!, Toronto, Ontario
Peter Mancini
Member or Parliament
Ron Mann
Filmmaker, Toronto
Patrick Martin
Member of Parliament, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Vishnu Mathur
T.V. Producer, Toronto
Alexa McDonough
Member of Parliament, Federal Leader of New Democratic Party, Ottawa, Canada
Ruth Morris
Education Director, Toronto
Lorne Nystrom
Member of Parliament, N.D.P., Qu'Appelle, Regina, Saskatchewan
Eugene Oscapella
Lawyer, former Chair, Law Reform Commission of Canada Drug Policy
George Panagpa
F.U.M Group - Parkdale Comunity Health Center
John C. Polanyi
Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1986), Toronto, Ontario
Gil Puder
Police Officer, Abbotsford, BC
Diane Riley, PhD
International Harm Reduction Association, Toronto
Svend Robinson
Member of Parliament, New Democratic Party of Canada, Burnaby-Douglas
Greg Robinson
Co-Chair AIDS Action Now!, Toronto
Dr. David Roy
Director, Centre for Bioethics, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal
Clayton Ruby
Lawyer, Toronto
Gordon S. Earle
Member of Parliament, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Dr. John S. Millar
Provincial Health Officer, Ministry of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniors, Victoria, British Columbia
Pat Sanagan
Substance Abuse Prevention Consultant
Jan Skirrow
Consultant; Former CEO Alberta Alcohol & Drug Abuse Commission; Deputy Minister of Community and Occupational Health, Alberta; Founding CEO Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Duncan, BC
Robert St-Pierre
HIV Program Coordinator, Canadian Hemophilia Society, Montreal
Terence Stewart
Canadian Aids Society, Ottawa
Peter Stoffer
Member of Parliament - New Democratic Party of Canada
Neev Tapiero
Medical Cannabis Activist and Dispenser, Toronto
Jeannette Tossounian
MUM (Marijuana Used for Medicine), Kitchener, Ontario
Elaine Vautour
Counsellor, Toronto, Ontario
Judy Wasylycia-Leis
Member of Parliament, Winnipeg
Dr. Jonathan Wouk
Ottawa, Ontario
Ariel Dorfman
Spencer So
Community Drug Advisory Council
Arturo Alape
Gustavo Alvarez Gardeazabal
Governor, Department of Valle de Cauca
Belisario Betancur
Former President
Juan Manuel Santos
President, Fundacion Buen Gobierno
Alvaro Mutis
Augusto Ramirez Ocampo
Former Foreign Minister; National Recociliation Commission
Oscar Arias
Nobel Laureate (Peace); Former President of Costa Rica
Hans Henrik Brydensholt
High Court Judge, Former Director of the Danish Prison and Probation Service, Former Head of Section in the Danish Ministry of Justice
Bjørn Elmquist
Former Member of Parliament and Chairman of Parliamentary Permanent Committee on Justice
Jørgen Jepsen
Centre of Alcohol & Drug Research, University of Aarhus
Erik Merlung
District Attorney, Copenhagen
Erling Olsen
Former Minister of Justice, Former Chairman of the Danish Parliament, Former Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen
Villy Søvndal
Member of Parliament, Chairman of the Permanent Parliamentary Committee on Social Affairs
Washington Herrera
Former Presidential Minister
Inkeri Anttila
Professor of Penal Law, University of Helsinki; Former Minister of Justice
Kauko Aromaa
Research Director, National Research Institute of Legal Policy
Pekka Koskinen
Professor of Penal Law, University of Helsinki
Klaus Maekelae
Research Director, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies
Hannu Takala
Executive Secretary, National Council for Crime Prevention
Patrik Tornudd
Former Director of National Research Institute of Legal Policy
Claude Aiguevive, MD
Vice President, Médecins du Monde
Josefina Alvarez
Research Group on Criminal Policy, University of Montpellier I
Bruno Aubusson de Cavarlay
Research Engineer, Guyancourt
Dr. Elisbeth Avril
Médecins du Monde
Michèle Barzach
Former Minister of Health
Georges Berthoin
International Honarary Chairman of the European Movement, Paris France
Mario Bettati
Professor of International Law, Paris University
Francis Caballero
Professor of Law, Paris University
Jean-Pierre Changeux
Professor of Molecular Neurobiology, Pasteur Institute and College de France
Anne Coppel
Claude Faugeron
Research Director, Co-Director, CNRS Drug Research Group, Paris
Andre Glucksman
Marek Halter
Michel Kazatchkine
Professor of Immunology, Paris University
Catherine Lalumiere
MPE (Member of the European Parliament)
Jacques Lebas, MD
President, Institut de l'Humanitaire, Paris
Bertrand Lebeau
Head Centre Parmentier Paris
Thierry Levy
William Lowenstein, MD
Head, Montecristo Center, Paris
Jacky Mamou
President, Médecins de Monde
Arnaud Marty Lavauzelle
President, AIDES
Monique Nahas
Professor, University of Paris VIII
Lorenz Böllinger
Professor of Law, University of Bremen
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Member, European Parliament; Commission for Civil Rights and Internal Affairs
Barbara Duden
Professor of Historical Sociology, Hannover, Germany
Peter Frerichs
Vice President, Frankfurt Police
Prof. Dr. Monika Frommel
Criminal Law, School of Criminology, University of Kiel
Günter Grass
Prof. Dr. Axel Grönemeyer
Center for Social Problems, Public Health and Social Policy, University of Bielefeld
Johannes Gross
Journalist, Author, Talk show host, former editor "Capital"
Prof. Dr. Bernhard Haffke
Criminal Law, University of Passau
Ivan Illich
Dr. Hans Harald Koerner
Public Prosecutor, Frankfurt
Former German Federal Minister of Justice, drug political speaker, FDP Party
Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger
Former German Federal Minister of Justice
Heide Moser
Minister of Employment and Social Affairs, State of Schleswig-Holstein
Prof. Dr. Cornelius Nestler
University of Köln
Margarethe Nimsch
Former Minister for Health, State of Hessen, Germany
Prof. Dr. Cornelius Prittwitz
Criminal Law, University of Rostock
Prof. Dr. Stephan Quensel
Professor of Sociology, University of Bremen
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Scheerer
Aufbau- und Kontaktstudium Kriminologie, University of Hamburg
Prof. Dr. Konrad Schily
President, University of Witten-Herdecke
Hartmut Schneider
District Court Judge, Lübeck
Dierk-Henning Schnitzler
Police President, City of Bonn, Christian Democrate
Alexis Grivas
Foreign Correspondent El Sol de Mexico Daily
Nicos Mouzelis
Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics, Athens
Nocis Papadakis
Press Counsellor, Greek Embassy in London
George Papandreou
Alternate Foreign Minister of Greece
Michaelis Papayannakis
Member European Parliament
Anthony D. Papayannides
Journalist, Publisher
James Pettifer
Visiting Professor, Institute of Balkan Studies, University of Thessaloniki
Voula Tsinorema
Professor of Philosophy, University of Ioannina
Georgos Votsis
Political Editor, Eleftherotypia Newpaper, Athens
Arnaldo Ortiz Moscoso
Former President of the Bar Association, Guatemala
Jánes Kis
Jimmy Dorabjee
Program Manager, Society for Serving the Urban Poor, New Delhi
Ivana Bacik
Reid Professor of Criminal Law, Trinity College, Dublin
Vincent Browne
Journalist; Lawyer
Tim Murphy
Lecturer in Law, University College, Cork
Daire O'Brien
Editor, Himself Magazine
Olaf Paul Tyaransen
Yossi Beilin
Former Minister, Member of Knesset, Tel Aviv
Haim Cohn
Former Deputy President of the Israel Supreme Court, Professor of Penal Philosophy
Prof. Ruth Gavison
Haim Cohn Professor of Human Rights, Hebrew University; President of the Israel Civil Rights Association; Member, International Commission of Jurists
Menachem Horovitz
Former Director of Correctional Services, Department of Welfare and Labour; Research and Teaching Associate, Institute of Criminology, Hebrew University
Leslie Sebba, JD
Associate Professor, Law Faculty, Hebrew University; former Chairperson of the Criminology Council.
Vittorio Agnoletto
President of the Italian League Against AIDS
Monica Bettoni-Brandani
Undersecretary of State for Health
Giovanni Bollea
Professor of Neuropsychiatry, University of Rome
Emma Bonino
European Commissioner for Humanitarian Affairs
Nicoletta Braschi
Francesco Carella
President Health Commission of the Senate
Don Luigi Ciotti
President, Gruppo Abele, Torino
Dario Fo
Nobel Laureate (Literature 1997)
Luigi Manconi
Senator, President of the Green Party, Rome
Livio Pepino
President, Magistratura Democratica
Giuliano Pisapia
President, Justice Commission, Italian Parliament, Rome
Franca Rame
Stefano Rodota
President, Authority for Privacy
Ersilia Salvato
Vice-President, Senate, Rome
Grazia Zuffa
President, Forum Droghe; Former Member of Parliament, Florence
Colonel (R) Trevor N.N. MacMillan, C.D.J.P.
Former Commissioner of Police, Jamaica Constabulary Force; Former Director, Revenue Protection Division, Ministry of Finance
Renée Wagner
Member of Parliament, Luxemburg; President of the Green Party; Member, Special Parliamentary Commssion on Drugs
Susan Chong
Malaysian AIDS Council
Hisham Hussein
Malaysian AIDS Council
G. Chacko Vadaketh
Chair, Law and Ethics Committee, Malaysian AIDS Council; Advocate and Solicitor, Kuala Lumpur
Mariclare Acosta
President of the Mexican Comission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights (CMDPDH)
Homero Aridjis
President, International Organization of Literary Writers & Editors
Carlos Heredia Zubieta
Member of Congress
Gilberto Lopez y Rivas
Member of Congress
Jesus Silva Herzog
Former Mexican Ambassador to the United States
Andreas van Agt
Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands; Former Minister of Justice; Former Ambassador of the European Union to the United States
Janhuib Blans
Head of Jellinek Prevention; Assistant Professor of Parent Education and Prevention, University of Amsterdam
Tim Boekhout van Solinge
Centre for Drug Research, University of Amsterdam
Frank Bovenkerk
Professor of criminology, University of Utrecht
Giel van Brussel
MPH Master Public Health, Amsterdam
Dr. Peter D.A. Cohen
Centre for Drug Research, University of Amsterdam
Hedy d'Ancona
Former Dutch Minister of Welfare, Health, and Culture; Member of the European Parliament
Marcel van Dam
Publicist, Former Minister of Housing and Physical Planning, Putten, Netherlands
Dr. Peter A. de Groot
Psychiatrist, Harderwijk
Jan F. Glastra van Loon
Professor, Senator, Former State Secretary of Justice
John Griffiths
Professor of Sociology of Law, University of Groningen
Sylvia van 't Hul
Public Prosecutor, Rotterdam
Louk Hulsman
Emeritus professor of Penal Law and Criminology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam; Former President, European Commission for Criminal Problems, Coucil of Europe
Constantijn Kelk, Ph.D.
Professor, Director, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Sciences, Utrecht University
Free le Poole
Member of the First Chamber of Parliament (Senate), Vice-President, District Court, Assen
Ed Leuw
Researcher at the Ministry of Justice, The Hague
Freek Polak
Psychiatrist, Amsterdam
Felix Rottenberg
Frits C.F. Rüter
Professor of Criminal Law, University of Amsterdam
E.H. Schuyer
Senator; Chairman of Democrats (D66), Senate
Jan G. van der Tas
Former Netherlands Ambassador to Germany
Ed. van Thijn
Former Mayor of Amsterdam; Professor, University of Amsterdam
J.M. vander Vaart
Judge, District Court of Amsterdam
Leon Wever
Board Member, Symbion (Addiction Care Rotterdam Region, Rijnmond); Former Deputy Chief of Addiction Care, Ministry of Health
Dr. Pieter Winsemius
Former Netherlands Minister of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment Policy
Tim Barnett
Member of Parliament, New Zealand
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro
Former President of Nicaragua
Miguel d'Escoto Brockman
Former Foreign Minister; Fundeci Nicaraguan Foundation for Comprehensive Community Development
Xabier Gorostiaga
Former Rector, University of Central America
Johannes Andenaes
Professor of Penal Law; Former Rector, University of Oslo; Former Chairman, Permanent Penal Committee of Norway
Anders Bratholm
Professor of Penal Law, University of Oslo
Nils Christie
Professor of Criminology, University of Oslo, Former director of Scandinavian Board of Criminology
Gunnar Garbo
Ambassador; Former Member of Parliament
Ragnar Hauge
Professor, Former Director, State Institute of Alcohol and Drug Research
Cecilie Hoigaard
Professor of Criminology, University of Oslo, Former Director, Scandinavian Board of Criminology
Thomas Mathiesen
Professor of Sociology of Law, University of Oslo
Sturla Nordlund
Director, Norwegian State Institute of Alcohol and Drug Research
Javier Alva Orlandini
Member of Congress
Rolando Ames
Former Senator
Humberto Campodonico
Economist, University Professor (San Marcos)
Arturo Castillo Chirinos
Member of Congress
Julio Cotler
Director, Institute of Peruvian Studies
Javier Diez Canseco
Member of Congress
Fernando Eguren
Sociologist, Director of Quarterly Debate Agrario
Antero Flores Araoz
Member of Congress
Lourdes Flores Nano
Member of Congress
Ernesto Gamarra Olivares
Member of Congress
Diego Garcia-Sayan
Executive Director, Andean Commission of Jurists
Alfonso Grados Bertorini
Member of Congress, Peru
Gustavo Gutierrez
Jutta Krause
German Technical Development Agency
Manuel Lajo
Member of Congress
Guido Lombardi
Anchor, Red Global TV
Javier Perez de Cuellar
Former Secretary General of the United Nations
Federico Salazar
Anchor, America TV
Alejandro Santa Maria
Member of Congress
Annel Townsend Diez Canseco
Member of Congress
Jose Ugaz
University Professor
Allan Wagner
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs
Marek Balicki
Psychiatrist, Former Deputy, Ministry of Health
Mikolaj Kozakiewicz
Former Speaker of Parliament (1989-1991); Vice-President of IPPFV
Krzysztof Krajewski
Professor, School of Criminology, University of Jagiellonski
Marek Nowicki
President, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights; Member, Helsinki Commitee for Human Rights
Danuta Przywara
Secretary to the Board, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
Andrzej Rzeplinski
Professor of Criminology, University of Warsaw; Deputy President, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
Janusz Sieroslawski
Sociologist, Pompidou Group
Daniel Sampaio, MD, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, University of Lisbon
Malcolm Damon
Public Policy Liason Officer, South African Council of Churches
Neville Gabriel, C.S.S.R.
SACBC Parliamentary Office
Helen Suzman
Former Opposition Member of Parliament, Johannesburg
Jose Antonio Alonso Suarez
Judge. Juzgado de lo Penal n° 14 de Madrid
Gregorio Alvarez Alvarez
Judge. Juzgado de 1ª instancia e instrucción n° 2 de Salamanca
Francisco Javier Alvarez Garcia
Law Professor, Universidad de Cantabria
Perfecto Andrés Ibañez
Judge; Presidente de la Secc. 15. Audiencia provincial de Madrid
Heriberto Asencio Castillan
Judge. Audiencia provincial de Sevilla
Adela Asua Batarrita
Law Professor, Universidad de San Sebastiÿn
Ignacio Berdugo Goméz De La Torre
Dean and Law Professor, Universidad de Salamanca
Emilio Berlanga Ribelles
Judge. Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña
Ricardo Bodas Martin
Judge. Juzgado de lo Social n° 30 de Madrid
Javier Boix Reig
Law Professor - Universidad de Valencia
Antonio Caballero
Writer and journalist
Francisco Candil Jimenez
Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla
Rocio Cantarero Bandres
Law Professor, Universidad de la Rioja
Juan Carlos Carbonell Mateu
Dean and Law Professor, Universidad de Valencia
Manuela Carmena Castrillo
Judge. Vocal del Consejo General del Poder judicial
Miguel Carmona Ruano
Judge, Presidente de la Audiencia provincial de Sevilla
Jose Cid Moline
Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Candido Conde Pumpido
Judge. Sala 2ª del Tribunal Supremo
Antonio Contardo
Antonio Cuerda Riezu
Law Professor, Universidad de LeónLetrado del Tribunal Constitucional
Jose Luis De La Cuesta Arzamendi
Vice Dean and Law Professor Universidad del País Vasco
Juan Tomas De Salas
Lawyer and Journalist- Founder of the Grupo16, Publisher and Editor of HisToria16, Editor of El Gato Encerrrado
Jose Luis Díez Ripollés
Law Professor, Universidad de MÿlagaCoordinador del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal
Aurora Elosegui Sotos
Judge.Juzgado de 1ª Instancia n° 6 de San Sebastiÿn
Antonio Escohotado
Writer Professor of the Universidad a Distancia, Author of the best seller "Historia de las Drogas"
Jesus Fernandez Entralgo
Judge. Secc. 17. Audiencia provincial de Madrid
Maria Dolores Fernandez Rodriguez
Law Professor, Universidad de Murcia
Juan Carlos Ferre Olivé
Law Professor, Universidad de Huelva
Rafael Fluiters Casado
Judge. Juzgado de 1ª instancia e instrucción n° 1 de Alcalÿ de Henares. Madrid
Virginia Garcia Alarcon
Judge. Juzgado de lo Social n° 22 de Madrid
Mercedes García Arán
Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.Coordinadora del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal
Antonio Gil Merino
Judge, Presidente de la Secc. 7. Audiencia provincial de Sevilla
Luis Gonzalez Guitián
Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Luis Gracia Martin
Law Professor, Universidad de Zaragoza
Gumersindo Guinarte Cabada
Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Hernan Hormazabal Malaree
Law Professor, Universidad de Gerona
Maria F Ibañez Solaz
Judge. Juzgado de Instrucción n° 16 de Valencia
Carmen Lamarca Perez
Law Professor, Universidad Carlos III
Gerardo Landrove Diaz
Law Professor, Universidad de Murcia
Elena Larrauri Pijoan
Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Patricia Laurenzo Copello
Law Professor, Universidad de Mÿlaga
Jose Manuel Lorenzo Salgado
Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Borja Mapelli Caffarena
Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla
Maria Luisa Maqueda Abreu
Law Professor, Universidad de Almería
Antonio Martin Pallin
Judge. Sala 2ª del Tribunal Supremo
Javier Martinez Lazaro
Judge. Juzgado de lo Penal n° 4 de Madrid
Fermin Morales Prats
Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Manuel Moran Gonzalez
Judge. Audiencia Provincial de Salamanca
Julian Manuel Moreno Retamino
Judge. Tribunal Superior de Justicia, Sala Cont.-Adm. de Sevilla
Claudio Movilla Alvarez
Judge. Sala de lo Contencioso del Tribunal Supremo
Francisco Muñoz Conde
Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla
Enrique Orts Berenguer
Law Professor, Universidad de Valencia
Felix Pantoja
Judge, Fiscal de Menores de Madrid
Jose Miguel De Paul Velasco
Judge. Audiencia Provincial de Sevilla
Jose Joaquin Perez-Beneyto Abad
Judge.Juzgado de lo Social n° 4 de Sevilla
Mario Pestana Perez
Judge. Juzgado de 1ª Ins. e Instrucción n° 1 de Leganés. Madrid.Coordinador del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal
Miguel Polaino Navarrete
Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla
Luis Rodriguez Ramos
Catedrático de Derecho Penal de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Horacio Roldÿn Barbero
Law Professor, Universidad de Córdoba
Juan Jose Romeo Laguna
Judge. Audiencia provincial, Sección VIII de Sevilla
Bernardo Del Rosal Blasco
Law Professor, Universidad de Alicante
Ramon Saez Valcarcel
Judge. Vocal del Consejo General del Poder judicial
Fernando Savater
Writer / Philosopher
Jose R. Serrano-Piedecasas
Law Professor, Universidad de Salamanca
Ascension Sole Puig
Judge.Juzgado de lo Social n° 28 de Barcelona
Josep Maria Tamarit Sumalla
Law Professor, Universidad de Lérida
Juan Terradillos Basoco
Law Professor, Universidad de Cÿdiz
Jose Manuel Valle Muñiz
Law Professor, Universidad de Lérida
Ramiro Ventura Faci
Judge.Juzgado de Instrucción n° 18 de Madrid
Luis Yañez-Barnuevo
Member of Parliament
Jose Miguel Zugaldia Espinar
Dean, and Law Professor, Universidad de Granada
Anders Bergmark
Professor of social work, Stockholm University
Peter Curman
Former Chairman, Swedish Writer's Union
Ted Goldberg
Associate Professor of social work, Stockholm University
Olof Lagercrantz
Former Editor-In-Chief, Dagens Nyheter
Leif Lenke
Associate Professor of criminology, Stockholm University
Claes Örtendahl
Former Director General, Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden
Ingegmar Rexed
Judge,Svea Court of Appeal, Stockholm
Jerzy Sarnecki
Professor of criminology, Stockholm University
Sune Sunesson
Professor of social work, Lund University
Henrik Tham
Professor of criminology, Stockholm University
Per Ole Träskman
Professor of penal law, Lund University, Sweden
Hanns von Hofer
Professor of criminology, Stockholm University
Peter Albrecht
Judge, Court of Bâle-Ville; Professor, University of Bâle
Pascal Bernheim
Second Manager, Radio Suisse Romande - La Première
Dr. Barbara Broers
Division of Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Geneva
Christian Brunier
Member of Parliament, Geneva; President, Geneva Socialist Party
Pierre Philippe Cadert
Journalist, Radio Suisse Romande
Maria Luisa Cesoni
Attorney, Research Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Geneva
Jacqueline Cogne
Member of Parliament, Geneva
Herve Dessimoz
Congressman, Geneva Parliament
Dr Dominique Hausser, MD, MSc
Member of Parliament, Geneva; Co-president, Drug Policy Commission, Socialist Party
Bohdan D. Hawrylyshyn
Chairman, International Renaissance Foundation
Michel Heiniger
Film Director; Reporter, Swiss TV - Geneva
Dr. Annie Mino
MD Head, Division of Substance, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Geneva
Christian Nils Robert
Professor, School of Law, Geneva; CPT Expert (Council of Europe)
Albert Rodrik
Member of Parliament, Geneva
Francoise Schenk-Gottret
Member of Parliament, Geneva
Morton Abramowitz
International Crisis Group
Bruce Ackerman
Sterling Professor of Law, Yale University
Tammy Baldwin
Wisconsin State Representative, Candidate for Congress
Randy E. Barnett
Austin B.Fletcher Professor, Boston University School of Law
Jeremiah A Barondess MD
President, New York Academy of Medicine
Jim Baumohl
Bryn Mawr College
David H. Bayley
Dean, School of Criminal Justice State University of New York at Albany
Peter Beilenson
Baltimore City Health Commissioner
Ivan T. Berend
Professor, University of California, Los Angeles
Robert L. Bernstein
Founding Chair, Human Rights Watch
Jagdish Bhagwati
Professor of Economics, Columbia University
Nicolaus Bloembergen
Nobel Laureate (Physics 1981)
Leon Botstein
President, Bard College
John Bound
Professor of Economics, University of Michigan
Willie Brown
Mayor of San Francisco
Richard Burt
Senior Advisor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC
Calvin Butts III
Pastor, Abyssinian Baptist Church, New York, NY
Geoffrey Canada
Rheedlen Center for Children & Families, Inc.
William J Chambliss
Professor, George Washington University
Allan Clear
Executive Director, Harm Reduction Coalition
Harvey Cox
Professor of Divinity, Harvard University
Alan Cranston
Former U.S. Senator
Walter Cronkite
Author, Broadcast Journalist
John Curtin
Federal Judge, Buffalo, NY
Lloyd N. Cutler
Lawyer, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering; Former Counsel to the President, 1979-1981, 1994
Richard Dennis
President, Dennis Trading Group
Adrian W. DeWind
Partner, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton and Garrison
Jameson Doig
Professor of Politics and Public Affairs, Princeton University
Vincent Dole, MD
Professor Emeritus, Rockefeller University
Elizabeth K. Dollard
Professor of Law, Medicine & Psychiatry at NYU Law School
Ann Druyan
Federation of American Scientists
Steven Duke
Professor, Yale Law School
Troy Duster
Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley
Jonathan Eaton
Chairman, Department of Economics, Boston University
Thomas Eissenberg, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University
Joycelyn Elders
Former U.S. Surgeon General
Ahmet Ertegun
Executive Chairman, Atlantic Records
Jonathan F. Fanton
President, New School University
John Ferejohn
Professor of Political Science, Stanford, Senior Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Herman Feshbach
Institute Professor Emeritus, MIT
Robert Field
Chairman, Common Sense for Drug Policy
Hamilton Fish
President, Public Concern Foundation
Val L. Fitch
Professor Emeritus of Physics, Princeton University
Rev. Floyd Flake
Cathedral of the Allen AME Church, Pastor
Kathleen M. Foley
Project on Death in America
Milton Friedman
Senior Research Fellow, Hoover Insitution, Stanford University
Douglas Gale
Professor of Economics, New York University
H. Jack Geiger, MD
Professor of Community Medicine, City University of New York Medical School
Adrienne Germain
President, International Women's Health Coalition
Alfred G. Gilman, MD, PhD
Regental Professor and Chairman, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas
Ira Glasser
Executive Director, The American Civil Liberties Union
Ellen Goldberg
President, Santa Fe Institute
Marvin L. Goldberger
Dean, Division of Natural Sciences, University of California, San Diego
Stephen Jay Gould
Harvard University
Mike Gray
Author, "Drug Crazy"
Paul Greengard
Vincent Astor Professor of Neuroscience, Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University
Lester Grinspoon
Harvard Medical School
Lani Guinier
Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania
Terence Hallinan
District Attorney of San Francisco
Morton H. Halperin
Former Department of Defense and National Security Council Official
Susan Hammer
Mayor of San Jose
Vernon Henderson
Professor of Economics, Brown University
Arnold Hiatt
Stride Rite Foundation
H.J. Hoffer, PhD
Dean Emeritus, Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh
Sher Horosko
Executive Director, Drug Policy Foundation
Douglas Husak
Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University
Alex Inkeles
Sociologist, Senior Fellow Emeritus Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Sut Jhally
Professor of Communication, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Carole Joffe
Professor of Sociology at University of California
Howard Josepher, CSW
Executive Director, Exponents Inc.
John Kane
Federal Judge, Denver, CO
Nicholas Katzenbach
Former Attorney General
Donald Kennedy
President Emeritus Stanford University; Professor Bological Services, Stanford
Rufus King, Sr.
Daniel Klein
Department of Economics, Santa Clara University
Whitman Knapp
Senior District Judge, Southern District of New York
Jeanne E. Kohl
Senator, Washington State
Melvyn Krauss
Economist, Senior Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Mike Lawlor
Chair Judiciary Committee, Connecticut House of Representatives
Joshua Lederberg
Professor, Rockefeller University
Phillip R. Lee
Professor Emeritus, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
David Lenson
Professor of Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Titus Levi
Assistant Professor, University of Southern California
Robin J. Lewis
Associate Dean, School of International Affairs, Columbia University
Peter Lewis
Chairman, CEO, The Progressive Corporation
Walter Loewenstern, Jr., PhD
Co-Founder ROLM Corporation, Overseer Hoover Institution, Stanford University, President Vail Valley Institute
Robert E. Lucas, Jr.
Department of Economics, University of Chicago
Peter Lurie
University of Michigan
Paul Martin L.
Nobel Laureate (Physics)
Gary T. Marx
Professor Emeritus, M.I.T.; Professor of Sociology, University of Colorado
Joseph McNamara
Former Police Chief of Kansas City and San Jose, Research Fellow Hoover Institution
Donal E. J. McNamara
Former President American Society of Criminology
Miguel Mendez
Professor of Law, Stanford University
Matthew Meselson
Harvard University
Ruth Messenger
Former Manhattan Borough President
Robert B. Millman
Soul P. Steinberg Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Public Health, Cornell University Medical College
Jeff Miron
Professor of Economics, Boston University
Toby Moffett
Former U.S. Congressman; Vice President, Monsanto Company, Washington, DC
Howard Moody
Reverend Emeritus, Judson Memorial Church, New York, NY
Thomas Moore
Economist, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Paul Moore, Jr.
Bishop (Retired), Episcopal Church of New York
Dr. John P. Morgan
Professor of Pharmacology, City University of New York Medical School
Andrew P. Morriss
Associate Professor of Law & Associate Professor of Economics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
Patrick Murphy
Former Police Commissioner of New York City
Charles Murray
American Enterprise Institute
Ethan Nadelmann, PhD
Director, The Lindesmith Center
Robert Newman
Continuum Health Partners
Roger Noll
Professor of Economics, Director of Public Policy Program, Stanford University
Richard L. Ottinger
Former Congressman
Denise Paone, PhD
Assistant Director of Research, Asisstant Professor, Beth Israel Medical Center
Claiborne Pell
Former U.S. Senator
Joan Petersilia
Professor of Criminology, University of California, Irvine
Gerard Piel
Former Editor/Publisher, Scientific American
Senator Anne Rand
Assistant Majority Leader, Maine Senate
David Rasmussen
Professor of Economics, Florida State University
William Ratliff
Political Scientist, Senior Research Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Craig Reinarman
Professor of Sociology, Univeristy of California, Santa Cruz
Timothy N. Robertson
Legislator, New Hampshire
Dean E. Robinson
Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
G. Alan Robison
Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology, University of Texas, Houston
Laurance Rockefeller
Ruth Rosen
Professor of History at the U. of California, Davis
Marsha Rosenbaum
Director The Lindesmith Center, San Francisco office
Allan Rosenfield
Dean, Columbia School of Public Health
Vernon W. Ruttan
Regents Professor, University of Minnesota
Oscar Schachter
Professor Emeritus of International Law and Diplomacy, Columbia University
Kurt Schmoke
Mayor of Baltimore
Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D.
Division of Substance Abuse Medicine, Medical College of Virginia
Carl E. Schorske
Professor of History, Princeton University
Herman Schwartz
Professor of Law, American University
George Shultz
Former Secretary of State, Dinstinguished Fellow, Hoover Institution
Henry Siegman
Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, New York
Richard E. Smalley
Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1996)
George Soros
Chairman, Soros Fund Management LCC; Chairman, Open Society Institute
John Sperling
Chairman and CEO, Apollo Group, Inc.
Eric Sterling
President, Criminal Justice Policy Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Robert S. Strauss
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld
Eve Sullivan
Founder, Parents' Forum
Leon H. Sullivan
Chairman, OIC of America
Robert Sweet
Federal Judge, New York, NY
Hon. James W. Symington
Attorney at Law
David J. Theroux
Founder/President, The Independent Institute
Brooks Thomas
Former Chairman and CEO Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc.
John S. Toll
Chancellor Emeritus, University of Maryland System; President, Washington College; Former President, Washington Academy of Sciences; Former President, Universities Research Association
Arnold S. Trebach, J.D. , Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus, American University; Founder, The Drug Policy Foundation
Donald Trunkey
MD, Chairman and Professor, Department of Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University
Richard Ullman
Professor , Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton Universtiy
J. Thomas Ungerleider, MD
Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center; Presidential Appointee (Nixon), National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse
Dr. Mark Vierra
Assistant Professor of Surgery, Stanford University
James Vorenberg
Professor, Harvard Law School
Faye Wattleton
Former Executive Director, Planned Parenthood
Andrew Weil
Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine; Author of "Spontaneous Healing" and "Natural Health, Natural Healing"
Andrew Weiss
Professor of Economics, Boston University
Jann S. Wenner
Chairman, Wenner Media, Inc.
Cornel West
Professor, Harvard University
Sidney M. Wolfe, MD
Public Citizen's Health Research Group
Gavin Wright
Professor of Economics, Stanford University
Kevin B. Zeese
President, Common Sense for Drug Policy
George Zimmer
Chairman/CEO, Men's Wearhouse
Lynn Zimmer
Associate Professor of Sociology, Queens College, City University of New York
Franklin Zimring
Professor of Law, UC Berkeley
Jeffrey Zwiebel
Associate Professor of Finance, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University
Lord Rae
House of Lords
Austin N.E. Amissah
Judge, London
Rabbi Tony Bayfield
Director, Sternberg Centre for Judaism
Colin Blakemore
Professor; Fellow of the Royal Society; President, British Association for the Advancement of Science
Colin Brewer
Medical Director, the Stapleford Centre
Rabbi Sidney Brichto
Senior Vice President of the Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues
Peter P. Burnett
Bodleian Library
Alison Downie
Chair of Release, Solicitor
Edward Ellison
Retired Detective Chief Superintendent Metropolitan Police, Operational Head of Scotland Yard Drug Squad
Stephen Fineman
Professor, University of Bath
Paul Flynn
Member of Parliament, House of Commons
Mike Goodman
Director Release
Dr. Brian Iddon
Member of Parliament, London
Mike Jay
Chairman, Drug Policy Review Group
Nicholas Kurti
Fellow of the Royal Society
Danny Kushlick
Director, Transform
Reverend Dr. Kenneth Leech
Founder of Soho Drugs Group, Founder of Centrepoint
Robin Marris
Professor Emeritus, London University
Judi Marshall
Professor, Bath University
Austin Mitchell
Member of Parliament, UK
Edith Morgan
Mental Health Consultant, Order of the British Empire
Dr. Richard Newman
Professor of History, University of Wales Swansea
John Purcell
Professor, School of Human Resource Management, University of Bath
Lord Rae, MD
House of Lords
Anita Roddick, OBE
Founder, The Body Shop
Martin Short
Nigel South
Professor of Sociology, University of Essex
Ian Sparks
Chief Executive, The Children's Society
Eleanor Stephens
Senior Lecturer, Media Journalism, University of Sheffield
Richard Stevenson
Professor of Health Economy, Liverpool University
Anthony Tibber
Judge, London
Carole Tongue
Member of European Parliament
Right Reverend Rowan Williams
Bishop of Monmouth
Mario Benedetti
Simon Alberto Consalvi
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs
Diego Arria
Ambassador; Former Representative of Venezuela to the United Nations and Security Council

UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs
June 8-10, 1998